King Baudouin Foundation

Citizens & Healthcare

Robert Hoppe

In his book 'The Governance of Problems' (Policy Press, 2011) Robert Hoppe, Professor at the University of Twente, identifies four different types of policy questions. Each type requires a different approach:

Such unstructured problems are characteristically intractable and divisive in nature; they can easily lead to endless arguments and policymaking is often (of necessity) limited to conflict management.

The question of reimbursements in health care also encompasses a large number of diverse (sub-)problems. There is considerable uncertainty and disagreement over the approach. A conscious decision was therefore made by the King Baudouin Foundation to treat the issue of reimbursements in health care as a 'wicked' or 'unstructured' problem.

See also: FRB, La primauté des problèmes dans les soins de santé. Quatrième atelier, 27 mars 2014, Bruxelles.

Reports of other workshops which the KBF has organized on the theme of reimbursements in health care:

FRB, L’évaluation des aspects éthiques à la Haute Autorité de Santé (France). Premier atelier, 20 juin 2013, Bruxelles.

FRB, Quelles méthodes pour (mieux) intégrer les valeurs éthiques et sociétales dans les décisions relatives au remboursement des interventions de santé - Deuxième atelier - Participation des citoyens et des patients dans le processus décisionnel relatif au remboursement des interventions de santé, 6 septembre 2013, Bruxelles.

FRB, Enquête publique sur des critères de décision pertinents et sur leur importance relative pour le remboursement des interventions de santé Une étape vers un outil d’aide à la décision publique. Troisième atelier, 22 novembre 2013, Bruxelles.

King Baudouin Foundation


The King Baudouin Foundation is an independent, pluralistic foundation working in Belgium and at the European and international level. We are seeking to change society for the better,so we invest in inspiring projects and individuals. Within its health area, the Foundation supports initiatives that promote health, improve quality of life for patients and those close to them and contribute towards high quality, accessible and socially acceptable healthcare.

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